Jones, O., 2015: Het Establishment, Berchem: EPO, p.120.
 For all the remaining numbers and percentages, unless otherwise referred to, see: Elchardus, M., en Vanhautte, B., 2007: Het steile pad naar democratisch burgerschap, TOR2007/41, Brussel: VUB ; Elchardus, M., e.a., 2008: Vakoverschrijdende eindtermen in het secundair onderwijs, TOR2008/37, Brussel: VUB ; Claes, E., e.a., 2006: Jeugdonderzoek 2006, Leuven: KUL ; Hooghe, M. (red.), 2012: Jongeren, politiek en burgerschap, Leuven: Acco.
 De Groof, S., e.a., 2009: International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS). Vlaanderen in ICCS 2009, Brussel/Antwerpen: VUB/UA.
 Hirtt, N., 2010: Seront-ils des citoyens critiques?, www.skolo.org.
Nonetheless, the background philosophy of these end-terms – their functions – is good, as will become clear.
 Swerts, J., en Monten, K., 2013: Onderzoek naar de politiek-maatschappelijke, geografische, historische en economische kennis van studenten lerarenopleiding secundair onderwijs, Leuven: KHL.
 “Transversal end-terms are minimum goals concerning knowledge, insight, skills and attitudes, which do not belong to any one course, but are developed in several courses, educational projects and other activities (…) With these end-terms government assigns schools with a number of tasks which it finds important to both education and society. Society finds it important pupils are educated to become citizens, that are taught to live healthy and to take care of each other and their surroundings.” Memorie van toelichting bij het decreet tot bekrachtiging van het besluit van de Vlaamse Regering betreffende de eindtermen en ontwikkelingsdoelen in het basis- en secundair onderwijs, 2009, www.onderwijs.vlaanderen.be. These end-terms are divided in the following groups or contexts: Learning to learn, Technical skill, Trunk (critical thinking, aesthetic competence, and a series of virtues), three contexts around the Individual (physical health en safety, mental health and socio-relational development), four around Society (environment and sustainable development, political and judicial society, socio-economic society, socio-cultural society). There are no less than 120 specific transversal end-terms government has released on the work-floor of every school. Without any integral methodology, and much complaining in every teacher’s room as a consequence. Nonetheless, the background philosophy of these end-terms – their functions – is good, as will become clear in the text.
 Loobuyck, P., 2013: De seculiere samenleving, Antwerpen: Houtekiet ; 2014: Meer LEF in het onderwijs, Brussel: VUBPRESS ; (red.), 2015: Samenleven met overtuigingen, Antwerpen: UPA.
 In Flanders’ public educational system schools have to organize the choice between one of several 2 hours religious courses (Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox, Islam, liberal humanism, and soon Buddhism), in the private but state subsidized Catholic school-net only Catholicism is given as the religious course. The Catholic net has about 75% of Flanders’ pupils. The religious courses are organized and supervised not by the state but by their own ‘churches’.
 The constitution does not say these courses cannot be offered as optional, on top of the obligatory curriculum.
 A survey made by iVox for the Flemish political party Groen! has recently shown 70% of Flemish population to be in favor of a one ‘neutral’ course for all.
 Loobuyck, P., 2013:13.
 Religious courses now have to work together for at least 6 hours per class per year. Next to all these changes there also is talk in the public school-net to reduce the 2 hours religious course to a one hour one, and to have the other hour go to a LEF kind of course (as we understood during a school-visit from the chief of pedagogical services).
 Integral learning means one combines the factual, insight and application dimensions in the learning process so that what is learned becomes inscribed in a persons’ system of meaning and values. Constructivist means one takes the learner through the process by which one arrives at the fact or insight – and in this sense learns by doing, as opposed to the more brainless interpretations of letting kids find out everything themselves or only be ‘coached’ in an always ‘active’ or even ‘fun’ process.
 For all original functions see: De Coninck, C., e.a., 2002: Over de grenzen. Vakoverschrijdende eindtermen in de tweede en derde graad van het secundair onderwijs, www.onderwijs.vlaanderen.be.
 See especially Elchardus, M., e.a., 1999: Hebben scholen een invloed op de waarden van jongeren?, TOR1999/4, Brussel: VUB. In my 2014 I added inequality and under financing: in professional/vocational education (where are most of poorest kids) one finds a 30% deficit relative to general education on several components of democratic citizenship, and it is only logical that the more pupils per class and the more a school is in financial need, the less democratic citizenship can be achieved. The Belgian school-system is one of the most unequal systems in the OECD countries.
 ‘World-citizenship’ as the concept to functionally summarize or as the general goal of the transversal end-terms. To that end world-citizenship is much better than sustainable development, an a-political (technocratic) and thus far too politically biased concept for education. World-citizenship here means the form of citizenship and/or exercise of political power that takes into account we live in a world-system and that righteousness therefore is also a global affair. In Dutch one makes the distinction between wereldburgerzin (as just described) and wereldburgerschap (citizenship of a world-state) which clearly does not (yet) exist and would also be politically too biased for education.
 Verhaegen, P., 2015: Autoriteit, Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij.